What is Fumed White Oak?

Posted: September 11, 2023

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Author – Ryan Palma Owner/CEO Sustainable Lumber Co.

Fumed White Oak is a century-old technique that is believed to have originated in the late 19th century in Germany and Austria. The technique, found in our rustic White Oak hardwood flooring, was developed as a way to darken the wood and enhance the natural color and grain without utilizing a stain or dye. The process of creating fumed White Oak flooring involves exposing the wood to ammonia fumes in a controlled environment. We’re going to cover the fumed White Oak flooring process and why it’s beneficial.


  1. Preparation: The fuming chamber is an air-tight enclosure typically made of plastic or metal. The White Oak boards are stacked on fuming racks specifically designed for the enclosure, ensuring adequate exposure to the fumes. The fuming process requires careful control of temperature and humidity levels. The ideal conditions for fuming are between 70-90°F (21-32°C) with humidity levels between 75-85%. These conditions facilitate the ideal chemical reaction between the ammonia and the natural tannins in the wood.
  2. Fuming: Ammonia is introduced into the air-tight chamber typically on trays, allowing the ammonia to slowly evaporate and fill the enclosure with fumes. The duration of fuming can vary depending on the desired effect, but it typically ranges from a few hours to several days. During this time, the ammonia reacts with the natural tannins in the wood, causing a chemical reaction to occur.
  3. Color transformation: The fuming process results in a color change in the wood. The ammonia reacts with the tannins, creating a chemical reaction that darkens the wood’s color. This reaction typically produces a rich, warm, grayish-brown hue, giving White Oak a distinctive and desirable organic appearance.
  4. Neutralization and finishing: After the desired color is achieved, the fumed White Oak is removed from the fuming chamber. The wood is then carefully neutralized to stop the chemical reaction. This is easily accomplished by exposing the wood to fresh air. Finally, the White Oak is processed into a finished product like hardwood flooring, furniture, doors, molding, etc. A protective clear coating is then applied to protect and enhance the durability and appearance.


  1. Enhanced appearance: Fumed White Oak develops a unique and appealing organic color that enhances the natural character of the wood. The process brings out the wood’s natural grain patterns and highlights its beauty. The resulting color is often considered more visually desirable and sophisticated compared to unfumed White Oak.
  2. Uniform coloration: Fuming helps achieve a more consistent color throughout the wood, minimizing variations in tone and creating a cohesive look. This is particularly beneficial for larger flooring installations where uniformity is desired.
  3. Durability: White Oak is already an incredibly durable hardwood, and the fuming process does not compromise its strength, durability, or stability. The ammonia fumes simply penetrate the wood fibers, enhancing their natural resistance to decay, insects, and rot.
  4. Low maintenance: Fumed White Oak hardwood flooring tends to hide scratches and scuffs and wear more effectively due to its darker color and enhanced grain patterns. This can result in a floor that requires less frequent refinishing or maintenance compared to a lighter wood species.

It is important to note that while fuming can bring out the inherent beauty of White Oak, the specific appearance will vary depending on the quality and cut of the wood, the duration of fuming, and other factors. Other factors may include the amount of sapwood versus heartwood and how the wood is cut, for example, live-sawn vs. plain-sawn.

Since its inception, fuming White Oak has remained a popular technique in the woodworking industry, particularly for high-end furniture and flooring. It has become synonymous with the characteristic dark and rich appearance associated with fumed White Oak. Today, fumed White Oak continues to be widely used and desired for its distinctive color and enhanced grain patterns, adding elegance and sophistication to various applications in interior design.

Our knowledgeable and educated staff is here to answer any additional questions you may have. Please call us today for a free quote: Ph# 406.642.7120 or click here to submit an inquiry online. We look forward to working with you on your next project!